Is a competitive strategy used by males to ensure they are present during the restricted time when a female is ready for fertilization (Grafen and Ridley 1983; Yamamura 1987)
Males hold the female awaiting for her to undergo the reproductive molt and subsequently become fertile
Presumably, males can assess females’ physiological stage (Costantini et al. 2005, Ridley and Thompson 1979) via recognition of crustecdysone produced by the female (Ridley and Thompson 1979), though some studies reported that males are unable to recognize receptive females (Montalentl 1990).
Males with long antennae have a higher probability of finding receptive females and of engaging in mate‐guarding than males with short antennae (Bertin and Cézilly 2003)
Prolonged guarding may incur costs for females because during this period, the male is responsible for movement (Adams et al. 1985; Naylor and Adams 1987)