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  • Exclusively sexual reproduction (Unwin and Stebbing 1920; Ridley and Thompson 1979).
  • Internally insemination (Wilson 1991)
  • Direct development within the brood pouch (Wolff 2009; Vick and Blum ; Martínez and Defeo 2006; Brusca RC 1985)
  • Females produce a variable number of eggs (Arakelova 2001) and large females tend to produce more eggs (Arakelova 2001).
  • Females produce eggs even in the absence of males, which remain unfertilized (Needham 1942; Marchetti and Montalenti 1990).
  • Females are ready for fertilization only during a limited time window, when the oviducal openings are free (during approx. 24 hours following moulting). For that reason, the species practice a pre-copula (see below)